The central autonomic components include regions of the cerebral cortex, diencephalon, and brainstem. In the cerebral cortex, autonomic areas include the frontal premotor areas, telencephalic cortex in the hippocampus, insular cortex, anterior cingulate gyrus, and anteromedial prefrontal cortex. The central nucleus of the amygdala and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis are known as the extended amygdala and modulate the autonomic responses to emotions.


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